An analysis of force distribution in shear spinning of cone (2023)


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  • Cited by (20)
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International Journal of Mechanical Sciences

Volume 47, Issue 6,

June 2005

, Pages 902-921

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(Video) Mechanics of Materials: Lesson 34 - What is Transverse Shear? Explained


An analytic model for calculation of shear spinning force incorporate factor of over-roll (press down) of the blank is derived. The effects of blank thickness, roller nose radius, mandrel revolution and roller feed on the spinning force are discussed. Results obtained from calculation were compared with the experiment and other theoretical predictions. It is found that the present findings yield optimum results.


Shear spinning is a technique for manufacturing cone shape products by virtue of a roller and a rotating male form. As shown in Fig. 1, conical parts are produced by pressing the spinning roller on to the sheet blank which in turn is mounted on a rotating mandrel. Under the pressure of the roller, the material is axially displaced whereby the blank thickness is reduced. In this process, radial-axis position of the blank element was considered fix during deformation as depicted in Fig. 1.

Shear spinning process is adopted by the industry for manufacturing dished ends for boilers and tanks, wheel rims, silencer parts, nozzle, etc. As indicated by Held [1], in the spinning process, the roller press a small depth on the blank, over-roll, is important to confirm the accuracy of shape and dimensions, on the other hand, the over-roll can eliminate the rough surface of the blank material and produce the new surface on finished part. A way to estimate forces required for the process incorporating the over-roll of blank thus is essential for the design of the tool and selection of the machinery.

Hayama et al. [2] did consider five factors namely diameter of mandrel, corner radius of mandrel, roller diameter, roller nose radius and mandrel rotation to determine the pass schedule of roller. They also investigated experimental results of three force components with respect to stroke, blank thickness, conic angle and roller feed [3], however, no equation for spinning force calculation related to spinning parameters were proposed.

Avitzur and Yang [4] first derived the tangential force equation for spinning of cones. They also showed an approximate method to calculate the power. Kalpakcioglu [5] developed the tangential force and the specific energy equations under the assumption of simple shear deformation. Kobayashi and Thomsen [6] derived the tangential force equation assuming that the infinitesimal strain ratios remain constant during the spinning process. The radial and axial force components were calculated by using the projected contact area ratios.

However, all the studies stated above concerned only the power consumption in spinning of cones, the effect of individual spinning parameters on the spinning forces were never discussed. In this study, the effects of blank thickness, roller nose radius, mandrel revolution, roller feed and over-roll depth on the spinning forces are taken into consideration and incorporated in the proposed equations. Predictions calculated from the equations are compared with the experimental results. It is observed that the proposed equations yield the better results.

Section snippets

Analysis of shear spinning process

As depicted in Fig. 1, in the process of shear spinning, the spinning roller presses on a rotating sheet blank, force it to conform with the contour of the mandrel. Deformation of the sheet blank in this process is a combination of bending and shearing. In the course of forming, it is assumed that the radial distance of any point on the neutral line (point E1 or E2) remains unchanged, and the line sections AB and CD in Fig. 1 hold straight and normal to the surface throughout the deformation.

Experimental set-up

Fig. 11 presents the schematic diagram of shear spinning experimental set-up and spinning force measuring system. A modified CNC spinning device is driven by a 15hp DC motor on its spindle, and longitudinal and latitude power rates are 5 and 3hp, respectively. A special fixture holds the blank at its rim and, can move concurrently with roller. A three-channel dynamometer (Kistler 9257A) measures the shear spinning force. The force output signals were amplified through a three-channel charge

Results and discussion

Fig. 13 depicts the three force components as measured in the experiments. The experiments were repeated ten times. The axial force Fz is the largest among three components (Fz>Fr>Ft). Fig. 14 expresses the force components Ft,Fr and Fz as function of blank thickness. For ρR=4.8mm, N=60rev/min, f=0.16mm/rev and Cs=0.5mm, the experimental values are indicated by solid dots, calculated results from Eqs. (34)–(36) are shown by solid lines. The results by Kobayashi and Thomsen [6] and Kegg [7],


In this study of the analysis of shear spinning force, the following conclusions have been drawn.


An analytical model incorporating over-roll of the blank is proposed for the calculation of shear spinning forces.


The equations derived contain five parameters of the shear spinning process, namely blank thickness, roller nose radius, mandrel revolution, roller feed and over-roll depth. The effect of these parameters on shear spinning forces is discussed.


Shear spinning force calculated from

References (8)

  • M. Held

    Determination of the material quality of copper shaped charge liners

    Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics


  • M. Hayama et al.

    Study of the pass schedule in conventional simple spinning

    Bulletin of the JSME


  • M. Hayama

    Rotary forming—from rolling and spinning


    (Video) The Bizarre Behavior of Rotating Bodies

  • B. Avitzur et al.

    Analysis of power spinning of cones

    Journal of Engineering for Industry, Transactions of the ASME


There are more references available in the full text version of this article.

Cited by (20)

  • Experimental investigation of flow forming forces in Al7075 and Al2014 - A comparative study

    2021, Materials Today: Proceedings

    Flow forming is an important cold forming process that is used for producing axisymmetric jobs. The present investigation discusses the flow forming of Al2014 and Al7075. The flow forming forces were measured in the axial, circumferential, and radial directions using a Lathe dynamometer. The impact of changes in feed and mandrel speed on flow forming forces has been analyzed. The investigation showed that the axial force is the main dominating force, followed by the radial force in both Al2014 and Al7075. The average axial force in Al7075 under the same set of conditions was around 13–20% higher than Al2014 depending on feed and mandrel speed. The present investigation also suggests the change in feed rate has higher effect in Al2014 as compared to 7075 keeping other factors as constant.

  • Effects of flow forming parameters on dimensional accuracy in Cr-Mo-V steel tubes

    2018, Procedia Manufacturing

    Flow forming is a near-net shape forming process used to produce a range of tubular components. Advantages of the process include increased mechanical properties, grain refinement and high production rates. The cost effectiveness of the process stems from a reduction in input weight and a reduction in final machining time as compared to machine from solid routes. Careful selection of flow forming parameters, such as feed rate and spindle speed, is needed to ensure that the dimensional requirements of component design are met. The main purpose of this work was to explore the effects of machine parameters on geometrical outputs of flow formed trial parts in Cr-Mo-V steel, which is used in aerospace applications. Cr-Mo-V steel was flow formed in the annealed and the hardened and tempered conditions to assess the formability of the material across a range of input hardness. Results including inner diameter growth, formed wall thickness and material sectional hardness are presented. Forming trials were conducted at the Advanced Forming Research Centre on a WF STR600/3 flow former, which is equipped with force sensors on all three of the forming axes. The required forming loads are a significant aspect of managing tool life in an industrial setting, therefore the roller loads generated during forming have been studied. Experiments showed that there is a clear link between machine parameters and geometrical outputs. Slower feed rates and faster spindle speeds resulted in larger inner diameter growth and reduced wall thicknesses. Increased spindle speeds also caused a significant reduction in forming load. The hardness of the material was found to be proportional to the thickness reduction imposed on the trial parts in the annealed condition. Overall, it was observed that varying parameters in flow forming produced clear trends in the outputs, which can be used to predict tolerances in the design of components.

  • Experimental implementation and analysis of robotic metal spinning with enhanced trajectory tracking algorithms

    2012, Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing

    Citation Excerpt :

    Their results demonstrated fine agreement with predictions, particularly in small deformation areas. Chen et al. [31] have developed an analytical model including the over-roll (press down) thickness effect of the blank for calculation of shear spinning forces during spinning of a cone workpiece. The results have been experimentally verified for the effectiveness of their model.

    Metal spinning is a plastic forming process in which a disk or tube of metal is rotated at high speed and forced onto a mandrel. It is widely used in industry as an efficient, modern and economical production technique. This research proposes to develop a versatile robotic forming method and expand the application areas of robotic manufacturing processes to the metal spinning area. A lathe-type laboratory setup has been built and an industrial robot manipulator has been used to implement the metal spinning process. Experiments have been conducted with enhanced cascaded trajectory tracking algorithms with an add-on vibration suppressor. The potential of the proposed method has been illustrated with extensive case studies using both constant and variable speed trajectory profiles. Analyses for the growth of wrinkles have been performed through the topographical measurements of the products and the forming forces have been inspected. Results indicate that the efficiency of the process can be significantly improved with suitably selected variable speed trajectory profiles and the process parameters. The developed scheme successfully reduces the excessive oscillations of the manipulator during the metal spinning process and it requires no additional hardware to employ. The investigations demonstrate the feasibility of robotic metal spinning using an industrial serial link manipulator.

  • Analytical solution of the tooling/workpiece contact interface shape during a flow forming operation

    2010, Journal of Materials Processing Technology

    Citation Excerpt :

    This helical tool path, coupled with the curved profile of the rollers leads to a very complicated roller/workpiece contact area. In terms of related tool contact studies, an important analytical derivation of the workpiece contact in shear spinning was completed by Chen et al. (2005). However, in a comprehensive review of metal spinning processes, Music et al. (2010) highlighted that the mechanics of flow forming are quite different than shear spinning.

    (Video) Shear Centre - Structural Idealisation

    Flow forming involves complicated tooling/workpiece interactions. Purely analytical models of the tool contact area are difficult to formulate, resulting in numerical approaches that are case-specific. Provided are the details of an analytical model that describes the steady-state tooling/workpiece contact area allowing for easy modification of the dominant geometric variables. The assumptions made in formulating this analytical model are validated with experimental results attained from physical modelling. The analysis procedure can be extended to other rotary forming operations such as metal spinning, shear forming, thread rolling and crankshaft fillet rolling.

  • A review of the mechanics of metal spinning

    2010, Journal of Materials Processing Technology

    Citation Excerpt :

    They suggest that this may be due to the constraint of the flange. Over-spinning conditions have been investigated by Chen et al. (2005b) who report that decreasing the roller-mandrel clearance increases the axial and radial forces, but has negligible influence on tangential forces. Compared to shear spinning, forces in conventional spinning have not had as much attention.

    This review presents a thorough survey of academic work on the analysis and application of the mechanics of spinning. It surveys most literature published in English and the most important publications in German and Japanese languages. The review aims to provide insight into the mechanics of the process and act as a guide for researchers working on both metal spinning and other modern flexible forming processes.

    The review of existing work has revealed several gaps in current knowledge of spinning mechanics: the evolution of the stress state and the strain history of the workpiece in both conventional and shear spinning is not well understood, mainly due to the very long solution times that would occur in modelling the process throughout its duration with a sufficiently fine mesh to capture detailed behaviour through the workpiece thickness; the evolution of microstructure, residual stress and hence springback, has not been examined—either numerically or by experiment; the failure mechanisms of spinning – fracture and wrinkling – are only partially understood, through analogy with other processes, and as yet models of the process have not made use of contemporary damage mechanics; the design of toolpaths required to make particular parts without failure remains an art, and cannot currently be performed automatically with confidence. Studies on novel process configurations in spinning have shown that great potential for innovation in spinning exists. The process has the potential to be more flexible, to produce a wider range of shapes, and to form more challenging materials.

  • Analysis of splitting spinning force by the principal stress method

    2008, Journal of Materials Processing Technology

    The splitting spinning which is designed to split a rotational disk blank into two flanges, is one of newly rising, green flexible forming technologies, and it can be widely applied to manufacture a whole pulley or wheel in fields of aerospace, automobile and train. The investigation of forming parameters influencing on splitting spinning force can provide the foundation for the choice of equipments, the design of dies and the determination of processing parameters. This paper aims at developing a reasonable formula between splitting spinning force and forming parameters by the principal stress method, and then the reliability of the formula is verified by the comparisons with experimental data. Meanwhile, both a reasonable method of calculating the three-dimensional projected areas and a more effective method of solving the average angle in the deformation zone are presented. Furthermore, based on the formula, the laws of initial thickness and initial diameter of workpiece, diameter and splitting angle of splitting roller and feed ratio of splitting spinning influencing on splitting spinning force are investigated. The achievements may serve as an important guide for the determination and optimization of forming parameters of splitting spinning.

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