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International Journal of Mechanical Sciences
Volume 47, Issue 6,
, Pages 902-921
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An analytic model for calculation of shear spinning force incorporate factor of over-roll (press down) of the blank is derived. The effects of blank thickness, roller nose radius, mandrel revolution and roller feed on the spinning force are discussed. Results obtained from calculation were compared with the experiment and other theoretical predictions. It is found that the present findings yield optimum results.
Shear spinning is a technique for manufacturing cone shape products by virtue of a roller and a rotating male form. As shown in Fig. 1, conical parts are produced by pressing the spinning roller on to the sheet blank which in turn is mounted on a rotating mandrel. Under the pressure of the roller, the material is axially displaced whereby the blank thickness is reduced. In this process, radial-axis position of the blank element was considered fix during deformation as depicted in Fig. 1.
Shear spinning process is adopted by the industry for manufacturing dished ends for boilers and tanks, wheel rims, silencer parts, nozzle, etc. As indicated by Held , in the spinning process, the roller press a small depth on the blank, over-roll, is important to confirm the accuracy of shape and dimensions, on the other hand, the over-roll can eliminate the rough surface of the blank material and produce the new surface on finished part. A way to estimate forces required for the process incorporating the over-roll of blank thus is essential for the design of the tool and selection of the machinery.
Hayama et al.  did consider five factors namely diameter of mandrel, corner radius of mandrel, roller diameter, roller nose radius and mandrel rotation to determine the pass schedule of roller. They also investigated experimental results of three force components with respect to stroke, blank thickness, conic angle and roller feed , however, no equation for spinning force calculation related to spinning parameters were proposed.
Avitzur and Yang  first derived the tangential force equation for spinning of cones. They also showed an approximate method to calculate the power. Kalpakcioglu  developed the tangential force and the specific energy equations under the assumption of simple shear deformation. Kobayashi and Thomsen  derived the tangential force equation assuming that the infinitesimal strain ratios remain constant during the spinning process. The radial and axial force components were calculated by using the projected contact area ratios.
However, all the studies stated above concerned only the power consumption in spinning of cones, the effect of individual spinning parameters on the spinning forces were never discussed. In this study, the effects of blank thickness, roller nose radius, mandrel revolution, roller feed and over-roll depth on the spinning forces are taken into consideration and incorporated in the proposed equations. Predictions calculated from the equations are compared with the experimental results. It is observed that the proposed equations yield the better results.
Analysis of shear spinning process
As depicted in Fig. 1, in the process of shear spinning, the spinning roller presses on a rotating sheet blank, force it to conform with the contour of the mandrel. Deformation of the sheet blank in this process is a combination of bending and shearing. In the course of forming, it is assumed that the radial distance of any point on the neutral line (point or ) remains unchanged, and the line sections AB and CD in Fig. 1 hold straight and normal to the surface throughout the deformation.
Fig. 11 presents the schematic diagram of shear spinning experimental set-up and spinning force measuring system. A modified CNC spinning device is driven by a 15hp DC motor on its spindle, and longitudinal and latitude power rates are 5 and 3hp, respectively. A special fixture holds the blank at its rim and, can move concurrently with roller. A three-channel dynamometer (Kistler 9257A) measures the shear spinning force. The force output signals were amplified through a three-channel charge
Results and discussion
Fig. 13 depicts the three force components as measured in the experiments. The experiments were repeated ten times. The axial force is the largest among three components . Fig. 14 expresses the force components and as function of blank thickness. For , , and , the experimental values are indicated by solid dots, calculated results from Eqs. (34)–(36) are shown by solid lines. The results by Kobayashi and Thomsen  and Kegg ,
In this study of the analysis of shear spinning force, the following conclusions have been drawn.
An analytical model incorporating over-roll of the blank is proposed for the calculation of shear spinning forces.
The equations derived contain five parameters of the shear spinning process, namely blank thickness, roller nose radius, mandrel revolution, roller feed and over-roll depth. The effect of these parameters on shear spinning forces is discussed.
Shear spinning force calculated from
- M. Held
Determination of the material quality of copper shaped charge liners
Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics
- M. Hayama et al.
Study of the pass schedule in conventional simple spinning
Bulletin of the JSME
- M. Hayama
Rotary forming—from rolling and spinning
(1990)(Video) The Bizarre Behavior of Rotating Bodies
- B. Avitzur et al.
Analysis of power spinning of cones
Journal of Engineering for Industry, Transactions of the ASME
There are more references available in the full text version of this article.
- Experimental investigation of flow forming forces in Al7075 and Al2014 - A comparative study
2021, Materials Today: Proceedings
Flow forming is an important cold forming process that is used for producing axisymmetric jobs. The present investigation discusses the flow forming of Al2014 and Al7075. The flow forming forces were measured in the axial, circumferential, and radial directions using a Lathe dynamometer. The impact of changes in feed and mandrel speed on flow forming forces has been analyzed. The investigation showed that the axial force is the main dominating force, followed by the radial force in both Al2014 and Al7075. The average axial force in Al7075 under the same set of conditions was around 13–20% higher than Al2014 depending on feed and mandrel speed. The present investigation also suggests the change in feed rate has higher effect in Al2014 as compared to 7075 keeping other factors as constant.
- Effects of flow forming parameters on dimensional accuracy in Cr-Mo-V steel tubes
2018, Procedia Manufacturing
Flow forming is a near-net shape forming process used to produce a range of tubular components. Advantages of the process include increased mechanical properties, grain refinement and high production rates. The cost effectiveness of the process stems from a reduction in input weight and a reduction in final machining time as compared to machine from solid routes. Careful selection of flow forming parameters, such as feed rate and spindle speed, is needed to ensure that the dimensional requirements of component design are met. The main purpose of this work was to explore the effects of machine parameters on geometrical outputs of flow formed trial parts in Cr-Mo-V steel, which is used in aerospace applications. Cr-Mo-V steel was flow formed in the annealed and the hardened and tempered conditions to assess the formability of the material across a range of input hardness. Results including inner diameter growth, formed wall thickness and material sectional hardness are presented. Forming trials were conducted at the Advanced Forming Research Centre on a WF STR600/3 flow former, which is equipped with force sensors on all three of the forming axes. The required forming loads are a significant aspect of managing tool life in an industrial setting, therefore the roller loads generated during forming have been studied. Experiments showed that there is a clear link between machine parameters and geometrical outputs. Slower feed rates and faster spindle speeds resulted in larger inner diameter growth and reduced wall thicknesses. Increased spindle speeds also caused a significant reduction in forming load. The hardness of the material was found to be proportional to the thickness reduction imposed on the trial parts in the annealed condition. Overall, it was observed that varying parameters in flow forming produced clear trends in the outputs, which can be used to predict tolerances in the design of components.
- Experimental implementation and analysis of robotic metal spinning with enhanced trajectory tracking algorithms
2012, Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing
Citation Excerpt :
Their results demonstrated fine agreement with predictions, particularly in small deformation areas. Chen et al.  have developed an analytical model including the over-roll (press down) thickness effect of the blank for calculation of shear spinning forces during spinning of a cone workpiece. The results have been experimentally verified for the effectiveness of their model.
Metal spinning is a plastic forming process in which a disk or tube of metal is rotated at high speed and forced onto a mandrel. It is widely used in industry as an efficient, modern and economical production technique. This research proposes to develop a versatile robotic forming method and expand the application areas of robotic manufacturing processes to the metal spinning area. A lathe-type laboratory setup has been built and an industrial robot manipulator has been used to implement the metal spinning process. Experiments have been conducted with enhanced cascaded trajectory tracking algorithms with an add-on vibration suppressor. The potential of the proposed method has been illustrated with extensive case studies using both constant and variable speed trajectory profiles. Analyses for the growth of wrinkles have been performed through the topographical measurements of the products and the forming forces have been inspected. Results indicate that the efficiency of the process can be significantly improved with suitably selected variable speed trajectory profiles and the process parameters. The developed scheme successfully reduces the excessive oscillations of the manipulator during the metal spinning process and it requires no additional hardware to employ. The investigations demonstrate the feasibility of robotic metal spinning using an industrial serial link manipulator.
- Analytical solution of the tooling/workpiece contact interface shape during a flow forming operation
2010, Journal of Materials Processing Technology
Citation Excerpt :
This helical tool path, coupled with the curved profile of the rollers leads to a very complicated roller/workpiece contact area. In terms of related tool contact studies, an important analytical derivation of the workpiece contact in shear spinning was completed by Chen et al. (2005). However, in a comprehensive review of metal spinning processes, Music et al. (2010) highlighted that the mechanics of flow forming are quite different than shear spinning.(Video) Shear Centre - Structural Idealisation
Flow forming involves complicated tooling/workpiece interactions. Purely analytical models of the tool contact area are difficult to formulate, resulting in numerical approaches that are case-specific. Provided are the details of an analytical model that describes the steady-state tooling/workpiece contact area allowing for easy modification of the dominant geometric variables. The assumptions made in formulating this analytical model are validated with experimental results attained from physical modelling. The analysis procedure can be extended to other rotary forming operations such as metal spinning, shear forming, thread rolling and crankshaft fillet rolling.
- A review of the mechanics of metal spinning
2010, Journal of Materials Processing Technology
Citation Excerpt :
They suggest that this may be due to the constraint of the flange. Over-spinning conditions have been investigated by Chen et al. (2005b) who report that decreasing the roller-mandrel clearance increases the axial and radial forces, but has negligible influence on tangential forces. Compared to shear spinning, forces in conventional spinning have not had as much attention.
This review presents a thorough survey of academic work on the analysis and application of the mechanics of spinning. It surveys most literature published in English and the most important publications in German and Japanese languages. The review aims to provide insight into the mechanics of the process and act as a guide for researchers working on both metal spinning and other modern flexible forming processes.
The review of existing work has revealed several gaps in current knowledge of spinning mechanics: the evolution of the stress state and the strain history of the workpiece in both conventional and shear spinning is not well understood, mainly due to the very long solution times that would occur in modelling the process throughout its duration with a sufficiently fine mesh to capture detailed behaviour through the workpiece thickness; the evolution of microstructure, residual stress and hence springback, has not been examined—either numerically or by experiment; the failure mechanisms of spinning – fracture and wrinkling – are only partially understood, through analogy with other processes, and as yet models of the process have not made use of contemporary damage mechanics; the design of toolpaths required to make particular parts without failure remains an art, and cannot currently be performed automatically with confidence. Studies on novel process configurations in spinning have shown that great potential for innovation in spinning exists. The process has the potential to be more flexible, to produce a wider range of shapes, and to form more challenging materials.
- Analysis of splitting spinning force by the principal stress method
2008, Journal of Materials Processing Technology
The splitting spinning which is designed to split a rotational disk blank into two flanges, is one of newly rising, green flexible forming technologies, and it can be widely applied to manufacture a whole pulley or wheel in fields of aerospace, automobile and train. The investigation of forming parameters influencing on splitting spinning force can provide the foundation for the choice of equipments, the design of dies and the determination of processing parameters. This paper aims at developing a reasonable formula between splitting spinning force and forming parameters by the principal stress method, and then the reliability of the formula is verified by the comparisons with experimental data. Meanwhile, both a reasonable method of calculating the three-dimensional projected areas and a more effective method of solving the average angle in the deformation zone are presented. Furthermore, based on the formula, the laws of initial thickness and initial diameter of workpiece, diameter and splitting angle of splitting roller and feed ratio of splitting spinning influencing on splitting spinning force are investigated. The achievements may serve as an important guide for the determination and optimization of forming parameters of splitting spinning.
Research articleInvestigation of the effect of roller inclination angle on the forming forces during a splined mandrel flow forming operation
Journal of Manufacturing Processes, Volume 19, 2015, pp. 183-186
Splined mandrel flow forming (SMFF) process is prone to premature failure of the splined mandrels. Such a failure is thought to be related to the magnitude of the forming forces exerted on the mandrel by the forming rollers. The multi-parametric nature of SMFF processes requires the use of a multi-variable analysis technique (i.e. Taguchi method) in order to assess different process parameters. In the present study, we demonstrated that there is an optimal inclination angle for the rollers that minimizes the forming forces and, therefore, optimizes the service life of the splined mandrel.
Research articleNumerical simulation and experimental study on multi-pass stagger spinning of internally toothed gear using plate blank(Video) Viscosity and Shear Stress 1 | Fluid Mechanics | LetThereBeMath |
Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 229, 2016, pp. 450-466
Internally toothed gears have wide application as transmission components, for which spinning process is attracting increasing attention due to its high production efficiency and low cost. In this paper, a multi-pass stagger spinning process of internally toothed gear from plate blank was investigated through FEM simulation and process experiment. Two passes, i.e., drawing spinning and power spinning, were designed during stagger spinning. The deformation characteristics were analyzed, the mechanisms of spinning defects were revealed and the influences of process parameters were discussed. It is shown that the preform formed by drawing spinning in the first pass contributed to the filling of inner tooth cavity in the second pass. Underfilling and crack in the vicinity of the tooth were two typical defects, which could be effectively controlled through optimizing the spinning process. On this basis, the internally toothed gear was well formed with high productivity by stagger spinning on a CNC spinning machine, showing great potential for industrial application.
Research articleAppropriate heat treatment and incremental forming route to produce age-hardened components of Al-2219 alloy with minimized form error and high formability
Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 256, 2018, pp. 262-273
Al-2219 alloy belongs to the class of age-hardenable materials applied in many industrial applications. To impart strength in components, it is usually tempered to T6 condition through age-hardening process. However, during this process, the components experience distortion thus adversely affecting the form accuracy. The present work is aimed at devising an appropriate processing route to produce age-hardened components through Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) with reasonable accuracy and formability. Three different processing routes namely P-ISF-ST-T6 (ISF followed by solution treatment which is followed by age-hardening), P-ST-ISF-T6 (solution treatment followed by ISF which is followed by age-hardening) and P-ST-T6-ISF (solution treatment followed by age-hardening which is followed by ISF) are applied to produce a pyramid shape. The tensile properties of the starting sheet blank are observed to have significant influence both on the form error and formability. Yield strength appears to control the error in the flat wall and corner of pyramid in a way that the error decreases with a decrease in strength. Low yield strength, however, contrarily promotes geometrical error in the bottom of pyramid. Corner in the pyramid geometry suffers from the maximum error. Regarding formability, it is found to be governed by the area reduction in tensile fracture. The least cumulative error with reasonably high formability is offered by the P-ST-ISF-T6 route. The processing route is found to influence the distribution of residual stresses as well. The nature/magnitude of stresses in the material is transformed when ISF is performed, which further experience transformation if exposed to heat treatment. The material processed through the P-ST-T6-ISF route endures the maximum residual stresses, the route that also induces the highest form error. This reveals that higher residual stresses could cause higher form error in ISF.
Research articleWrinkling Failure Mechanics in Metal Spinning
Procedia Engineering, Volume 81, 2014, pp. 2391-2396
Wrinkling failure mechanics of conventional metal spinning is investigated by means of finite element (FE) simulation. The results of FE simulation are validated by comparing the modelled roller force with that measured during a spinning experiment. From FE simulation, large residual stresses in the form of bending moments are found to be present in the flange, induced by the roller contact. It is found that wrinkling failure begins when a plastic hinge is formed between the roller and the edge of the blank. These bending moments cause the wrinkled state of the flange to be energetically favourable, which is seen as a reduction in the magnitude of these moments and the elastic strain energy of the FE model at the point of wrinkling.
Research articleStudy on plastic deformation behavior of hot splitting spinning of TA15 titanium alloy
Materials & Design, Volume 58, 2014, pp. 465-474
The plastic deformation behavior of hot splitting spinning of TA15 titanium alloy is a complex metal forming problem with multi-factor coupling interactive effects. In this paper, on condition of considering various thermal effects, a three-dimensional (3D) elastic–plastic coupled thermo-mechanical finite element (FE) model of hot splitting spinning of TA15 titanium alloy is established using the dynamic, temp-disp, explicit module of FE software ABAQUS. Based on the analysis of flow behaviors of TA15 titanium alloy, the mechanism and influence of materials plastic deformation behavior during the forming process are studied. The results show that, the flow stress of TA15 titanium alloy generally decreases with the increase of deformation temperature; at the same strain rate, the higher temperature is, the lower flow stress is. The temperature distributions along the circumferential direction of disk blank are even and the temperature of plastic deformation area is about 984°C. The heat from plastic deformation and friction at local plastic deformation area is less than the dissipated heat, so the temperature just falls into approximately 945°C. Radial spinning force as the driving force of plastic deformation increases gradually and reaches about 35kN at the end. The maximum value of equivalent stress is presented in fillet part between disk blank and two mandrels. The distributions of equivalent plastic strain appear the large strain gradients and the obvious characteristics of inhomogeneous deformation. When friction factor on interfaces between disk blank and dies ranges from 0.4 to 0.6, the forming quality and precision are highest.
Research articleFE simulation and experiment study on flow forming of inner-splined flange
Procedia Engineering, Volume 207, 2017, pp. 621-626
Inner-splined flange (ISF) is a special component with multi-splines on the inner surface. This non-rotary feature is traditionally manufactured by machining which has disadvantages of material waste and insufficient material properties as compared to plastically formed parts. Flow forming is an innovative rotary incremental forming technique to manufacture hollow profile parts. During the forming process, a workpiece is positioned on a die with profile section which makes rotating motion. A roller tool with multi-rolling balls is pressed on the outer surface of the workpiece, which makes axial feed movement. This allows the workpiece to be formed gradually to the expected section shape by the radial pressure between the die and rolling balls. In this paper, flow forming was adopted to manufacture an ISF. To demonstrate the feasibility, FE simulations for the flow forming of ISF were tried including different process parameters. The metal flow law during the forming process was analyzed, which helps develop a better understanding of the deformation mechanism of this flow forming concept. The effects of different process parameters were discussed, which enables a design basis for this technique. Based on the simulation results, experiments for the flow forming of ISF were carried out. The results show that the ISF can be net-shaped by the flow forming potentially. This study offers an innovative potential method for manufacturing ISF with high precision and performance and it maybe spread for other hollow profile parts.(Video) Flow between Concentric cylinders
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